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By 1636, his son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of Liaodong and declared a new dynasty, the Qing.

In 1644, peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng conquered the Ming capital, Beijing.

The emperors equated the lands of the Qing state (including present-day Northeast China, Xinjiang, Mongolia, Tibet and other areas) as "China" in both the Chinese and Manchu languages, defining China as a multi-ethnic state, and rejecting the idea that "China" only meant Han areas.

The Qing emperors proclaimed that both Han and non-Han peoples were part of "China".

), was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.


The chapter China (中國) in a Chinese, Manchu, and Mongolian languages (trilingual) textbook published during the Qing dynasty; the passage displayed above reads: "Our country China is located in East Asia...

Nurhaci declared himself the "Bright Khan" of the Later Jin (lit.


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