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This scintillator produces a flash of light when it interacts with a beta particle.

A vial with a sample is passed between two photomultipliers, and only when both devices register the flash of light that a count is made.

Over the years, other secondary radiocarbon standards have been made.

Radiocarbon activity of materials in the background is also determined to remove its contribution from results obtained during a sample analysis.

When the stocks of Oxalic Acid I were almost fully consumed, another standard was made from a crop of 1977 French beet molasses.

The new standard, Oxalic Acid II, was proven to have only a slight difference with Oxalic Acid I in terms of radiocarbon content.

In this method, the carbon 14 content is directly measured relative to the carbon 12 and carbon 13 present. Some inorganic matter, like a shell’s aragonite component, can also be dated as long as the mineral’s formation involved assimilation of carbon 14 in equilibrium with the atmosphere.

The radiocarbon age of a certain sample of unknown age can be determined by measuring its carbon 14 content and comparing the result to the carbon 14 activity in modern and background samples.

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